Nephrology

Nephrology

Kidney issues are on the rise around the world, with millions of people each year undergoing treatments for kidney injury or chronic kidney disease (CKD). In fact, kidney disease ranks as the 12th leading cause of death globally.

Nephrologists are medical professionals who diagnose, treat, and manage acute and chronic kidney problems and diseases. They also treat associated issues like high blood pressure, fluid retention, and electrolyte and mineral imbalances. In addition, these specialists are in charge of kidney dialysis treatment — both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis — and kidney transplants and their follow-up care.

The Kidney specialist in chennai are experts in renal health, and they work to identify issues with the kidneys to help  maintain good health. Kidneys are important because they filter the blood to remove waste and toxins, and they monitor and balance the water, acid-base, and mineral ratios in the body. Without proper filtering of the blood and balanced amounts of fluids and nutrients, your body can become an unhealthy environment. Having low-kidney function can put you at risk for chronic kidney disease, kidney failure, or end-stage renal disease, where you require dialysis regularly.

Seeing a nephrologist for your care puts you in the hands of experts who can recommend the best treatment plan. They stay up-to-date on medical advancements for your kidney condition to ensure that you have the most accurate and comprehensive care from the best kidney transplant hospital.

The surgical removal of the skin that covers the tip of the penis is known as circumcision.

For newborn boys, the treatment is rather typical in some countries, including the US.

It is still feasible to circumcise after the infant stage, although the process is more difficult.

Circumcision is a religious ceremony for certain households. The practise may also be dictated by personal hygiene, family custom, or preventive medical care. In some cases, such as when the foreskin is too tight to be drawn back (retracted) over the glans, circumcision is medically necessary.

Bleeding and infection are the most frequent side effects after circumcision. The penis normally heals in seven to ten days

A minimally invasive procedure to treat an enlarged prostate is holmium laser prostate surgery.

A laser is used in the technique, also known as holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP), to cut away tissue that is obstructing urine flow through the prostate.

The prostate tissue is then sliced into easily-removable pieces using a different tool.

While open prostate surgery necessitates incisions, HoLEP does not. The whole prostate tissue that can obstruct urine flow is removed by HoLEP.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia, or an enlarged prostate, can be permanently treated with this procedure (BPH). HoLEP also keeps excised tissue so that it may be tested for other illnesses, such prostate cancer, in a lab.

Similar to other prostate laser procedures, HoLEP may result in a quicker recovery and symptom relief than conventional prostate surgery.

In rare cases, HoLEP re-treatment may be required for urinary symptoms

The condition known as benign prostatic hyperplasia, which is characterised by an enlarged prostate, can be treated with prostate laser surgery to alleviate mild to severe urinary symptoms (BPH).

Your doctor inserts a scope through the tip of your penis into the tube carrying urine from your bladder during prostate laser surgery (urethra). The urethra is surrounded by the prostate, which can become enlarged and limit the flow of urine from the bladder.

The prostate tissue that is obstructing urine flow is shrunk or removed using a laser that is transmitted via the scope.

Urinary symptoms of BPH, such as the need to urinate frequently and urgently, difficulty starting to urinate, and frequent urine, are alleviated with prostate laser surgery.

protracted and slow urination, increased night time urination frequency, urinating repeatedly while pausing and starting again, the impression that you cannot fully empty your bladder, infections of the urinary tract

Additionally, laser surgery may be used to cure or prevent problems including recurrent urinary tract infections that result from obstructed urine flow. bladder or kidney damage, inability to urinate at all or with difficulty controlling one’s urination, urinary stones, urine with blood in it.

When compared to alternative BPH treatment options, laser surgery can provide a number of benefits. The effects of drugs may not be apparent for weeks or even months.

Following laser surgery, improvements in urinary symptoms are immediately apparent.

 

 

An excretory urogram, commonly known as an intravenous pyelogram, is an X-ray examination of your urinary tract.

Your doctor can see your kidneys, your bladder, and the tubes that transfer urine from your kidneys to your bladder during an intravenous pyelogram (ureters).

To identify conditions that impact the urinary tract, such as kidney stones, bladder stones, an enlarged prostate, kidney cysts, or urinary tract cancers, an intravenous pyelogram may be employed.

You will get an injection of X-ray dye (iodine contrast solution) into a vein in your arm during an intravenous pyelogram. Your kidneys, ureters, and bladder are all traced by the dye as it enters each of these organs.

An intravenous pyelogram can be a useful diagnostic technique, especially for diagnosing kidney stones, some structural urinary tract diseases, and urinary tract blockage.

The IV line is removed from your arm once the intravenous pyelogram is finished, and you are free to resume your regular activities.

Treatments to assist regulate when you urinate or have a bowel movement are part of neurogenic bladder and bowel management.

Sometimes a spinal cord injury prevents the nerves in the spinal cord that regulate bowel and bladder function from communicating with the brain.

This may result in neurogenic bladder or neurogenic bowel dysfunction, which affects the bladder and bowel. Similar issues could affect those who have spina bifida or multiple sclerosis.

Signs and symptoms of neurogenic bladder may include:

  1. Loss of bladder control
  2. Inability to empty the bladder
  3. Urinary frequency
  4. Urinary tract infections.

Signs of neurogenic bowel include:

  1. Loss of bowel control
  2. Constipation
  3. Bowel frequency
  4. Lack of bowel movements.

A new bladder is created via a surgical process called neobladder reconstruction.

A surgeon can design an alternative route for urine to leave the body if the bladder is no longer functioning correctly or was removed to treat another ailment (urinary diversion).

One method for urinary diversion is neobladder reconstruction.

Some reasons that people have their bladders removed include:

  • Bladder cancer
  • A bladder that no longer works properly, which can be caused by radiation therapy, neurological conditions, chronic inflammatory disease or other disease
  • Urinary incontinence that hasn’t responded to other treatment
  • Conditions present at birth that cannot be repaired
  • Trauma to the bladder

An intestinal fragment is used by the surgeon to construct a new bladder during the procedure. With the redesigned bladder, one can choose when and how often to urinate.

Another name for the technique is an orthotopic neobladder reconstruction.

Orthotopic describes things that are in their normal locations within the body.

The replacement bladder is positioned in the same spot as the old one.

The prostate gland can be completely or partially removed during a prostatectomy.

In the male pelvis, beneath the urinary bladder, is where the prostate gland is located.

It encircles the urethra, which connects the bladder and penis and conducts urine.

The treatment is used to treat a variety of prostate-related diseases. Most frequently, it is used to treat prostate cancer.

Depending on the problem being treated, there are numerous procedures to do a prostatectomy. Options include standard open surgery as well as less invasive procedures carried out with robotic help.

In contrast to a radical prostatectomy, a simple prostatectomy does not always require the removal of the entire prostate. Instead, the prostate’s obstruction to the passage of urine is only partially removed during this treatment.

The procedure alleviates difficulties and symptoms related to urinary tract obstruction, such as:

  • a constant, pressing urge to urinate
  • difficulty beginning to urinate
  • Taking a lengthy time to urinate
  • increased frequency of night time urination
  • urinating repeatedly while pausing and resuming again
  • the sensation that your bladder is partially empty
  • infections of the urinary tract
  • being unable to urinate

A surgical treatment called a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) involves removing a portion of the prostate.

Only men have the prostate, a little gland in the pelvic. It encircles the urethra and is situated around the penis and bladder (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the penis).

The bladder and urethra may experience pressure if the prostate enlarges. Among the signs of this are difficulties urinating.  When prostate enlargement results in bothersome symptoms and does not improve with pharmaceutical treatment, TURP is frequently advised.

After TURP, symptoms include difficulty starting to urinate, weak urine flow, stopping and starting, needing to strain to urinate, waking up frequently at night to urinate, and not being able to completely empty your bladder may improve.

In order to diagnose and treat a range of urinary tract issues, a tiny scope (similar to a flexible telescope) is introduced into the bladder and ureter. It enables the urologist to really peer inside the ureter, locate the stone, and remove it in the case of ureteral stones (a stone in the ureter). The surgeon inserts a small wire basket through the bladder into the lower ureter, grips the stone, and pulls it free.

With or without the insertion of a stent, this is an outpatient surgery (a tube that is placed in the ureter to hold it open).  Most often ureteroscopy is used for stones in the ureter, especially for stones closest to the bladder, in the lower half of the ureter. lt is the most common treatment of lower ureteral stones.

For stones in the kidney, shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is the most common treatment. SWL treatment cannot be used in everyone. For patients who are pregnant, morbidly obese, or have a blood clotting disorder, ureteroscopy is a good choice.

For very large or oddly shaped stones, or stones that are very hard, other treatments such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy or, rarely, open surgery may be needed.

 

 

Kidney stone treatment in chennai uses extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy to treat stones in the kidney and ureter without surgery. Instead, the body is subjected to high-intensity shock waves that are used to smash stones into fragments no bigger than sand grains. These fragments might pass from the body with the urine because of their small size.

Shock wave therapy can be used to remove stones in two different methods. The patient is submerged in lukewarm water in one technique. The body is positioned to precisely target the stones using ultrasound or x-rays to locate their precise location.

In the second, more popular technique, the patient is lying on top of a soft cushion or membrane that allows the waves to pass through. To crush the stones, 1-2000 shock waves are required. The entire procedure lasts between 45 and 60 minutes.

The main benefit of this treatment is the possibility of treating many patients without surgery for kidney stones. The patient can nearly immediately move around after the therapy is over. Within one to two days, many people are able to fully resume their normal routines. There is no need for special diets, however drinking a lot of water facilitates the passage of the stone fragments. When the pieces pass, there may be some pain, which starts soon after treatment and could linger for up to four to eight weeks. Taking oral painkillers and drinking a lot of water will also aid with symptom relief.

A deceased-donor kidney transplant occurs when, with the family’s approval or using a donor card, a kidney from a patient whose kidneys have failed and no longer function effectively and require transplantation is removed and given to the recipient.                         

Until the kidney is transplanted into the recipient, the donated kidney is either kept on ice or attached to a machine that supplies oxygen and nutrition. To reduce the amount of time the kidney spends outside a human body, the donor and receiver are frequently in the same location as the transplant facility.  The body can function with one given kidney.

For this reason, a living donor kidney transplant is an option to a transplant using a deceased donor’s kidney. End-stage renal disease patients require dialysis or a kidney transplant to keep them alive by removing waste from their bloodstream mechanically.

The primary course of treatment for the majority of those with severe renal disease or kidney failure is a kidney transplant.

A kidney transplant gives a lower chance of death, a higher quality of life, and fewer dietary restrictions than a lifetime on dialysis.

A living donor’s healthy kidney is surgically removed in a donor nephrectomy for transplant into a patient whose kidneys are no longer functioning correctly.

An alternative to kidney transplants from deceased donors is kidney transplants from living donors.

One of a living donor’s two kidneys can be donated, while the other kidney can still carry out the necessary tasks.

In most cases, a kidney transplant is preferable than a lifetime of dialysis when treating renal failure. When compared to kidney transplants with a deceased donor, living-donor transplants have fewer problems and a higher survival rate for the donor organ.

With more people needing kidney transplants, donor nephrectomy for living kidney donation has become more popular recently.

Living donor kidney transplants are a desirable alternative for those in need of a kidney transplant because the demand for donor kidneys considerably outweighs the supply of deceased donor kidneys

A kidney condition known as nephrotic syndrome makes your body excrete excessive amounts of protein in urine.

 

The clusters of tiny blood capillaries in your kidneys that filter waste and extra water from your blood are typically damaged by nephrotic syndrome. The illness raises your chance of developing other health issues and produces swelling, especially in your ankles and feet.

 

The ailment that is producing nephrotic syndrome must be treated, and medicine must be taken.

 

Your risk of infections and blood clots can increase because of nephrotic syndrome.

 

Nephrotic syndrome symptoms and signs include:

  • severe edema (swelling), especially around the eyes and in the ankles and feet
  • Having too much protein in your urine will cause foamy urine.
  • Retention of fluids results in weight gain
  • Fatigue
  • reduced appetite

A progressive loss of kidney function is a feature of chronic kidney disease, commonly known as chronic kidney failure. Wastes and extra fluid are removed from your blood by your kidneys and then passed through your urine. Your body may accumulate hazardous amounts of fluid, electrolytes, and wastes if you have advanced chronic renal disease.

You may not have many signs or symptoms when chronic kidney disease is first developing.

It’s possible that kidney illness goes unnoticed until it’s already advanced. The goal of chronic renal disease treatment is to slow the development of kidney damage, usually by addressing the underlying cause. However, even stopping the cause of kidney disease could not stop the damage from getting worse.

Without mechanical filtering (dialysis) or a kidney transplant, end-stage renal failure from chronic kidney disease is fatal. Kidney disease symptoms and signs are frequently vague.

They can therefore also be brought on by different diseases. You might not experience symptoms until permanent damage has taken place since your kidneys can compensate for reduced function

Kidney stones are hard deposits consisting of minerals and salts that develop inside your kidneys. They are also known as renal calculi, nephrolithiasis, or urolithiasis.

Kidney stones can be caused by a variety of factors, including diet, excess body weight, various medical conditions, specific supplements, and drugs. Any section of your urinary tract, from your kidneys to your bladder, might be impacted by kidney stones.

When urine becomes concentrated, minerals can crystallise and adhere to one another and frequently lead to stones.  Although passing kidney stones can be extremely painful, if they are caught early enough, they typically don’t result in permanent harm.

You might only need to take painkillers and drink a lot of water to clear a kidney stone, depending on your circumstances.

 

Surgery might be required in other situations, such as when stones become trapped in the urinary tract, are linked to an infection, or result in problems.

Until a kidney stone moves around or enters one of the ureters, symptoms are typically not present. The tubes that link the kidneys and bladder are known as ureters.

A kidney stone that becomes stuck in the ureters can restrict the urine’s flow, inflame the kidney, and cause the ureter to spasm, all of which can be excruciatingly painful.

You can then experience the following signs:

  • severe, stabbing pain below the ribcage on the side and back
  • Radiating discomfort in the groin and lower abdomen
  • Pain that is intermittent and varies in severity
  • When urinating, there may be pain or burning.

In a kidney transplant, a healthy kidney from a living or deceased donor is surgically implanted into a patient whose kidneys are no longer functioning correctly.

On either side of the spine, right below the rib cage, are two bean-shaped organs called the kidneys. They are all roughly the size of a fist. Urine production serves as their primary means of filtering and eliminating waste, minerals, and fluid from the blood.

When kidneys lose their capacity to filter, dangerous amounts of fluid and waste build up in the body, raising blood pressure and leading to kidney failure (end-stage renal disease).

End-stage renal disease develops when the kidneys are around 90% incapable of performing their usual functions.

End-stage renal disease develops when the kidneys are around 90% incapable of performing their usual functions. You won’t require dialysis after a successful kidney transplant because your new kidney will filter your blood.

 

Regular exercise helps enhance strength and restore vitality after a transplant. Additionally, it aids in stress reduction, healthy weight maintenance, and the avoidance of typical post-transplant problems including high cholesterol and blood pressure.

The prostate gland can be completely or partially removed during a prostatectomy.

In the male pelvis, beneath the urinary bladder, is where the prostate gland is located.

It encircles the urethra, which connects the bladder and penis and conducts urine.

The treatment is used to treat a variety of prostate-related diseases. Most frequently, it is used to treat prostate cancer.

Depending on the problem being treated, there are numerous procedures to do a prostatectomy. Options include standard open surgery as well as less invasive procedures carried out with robotic help.

In contrast to a radical prostatectomy, a simple prostatectomy does not always require the removal of the entire prostate. Instead, the prostate’s obstruction to the passage of urine is only partially removed during this treatment.

The procedure alleviates difficulties and symptoms related to urinary tract obstruction, such as:

  • a constant, pressing urge to urinate
  • difficulty beginning to urinate
  • Taking a lengthy time to urinate
  • increased frequency of night time urination
  • urinating repeatedly while pausing and resuming again
  • the sensation that your bladder is partially empty
  • infections of the urinary tract
  • being unable to urinate

The crystallisation of chemical components in urine leads to the development of kidney stones in the urinary tract.

When a stone in the kidney or upper ureter (the tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder) is too big to be treated with other stone-removal methods like shock wave lithotripsy or ureteroscopy, PCNL is used to remove it.

                                                      

The standard of care for individuals with kidney stones that are enormous, very firm, or resistant to alternative stone treatments is this surgery, which has been carried out on numerous patients over the past few years. In the vast majority of patients, it has thus taken the place of open surgeries for kidney stones.  The procedure takes three to four hours.

 

A tiny incision about 1 cm is made in the patient’s flank area to accomplish the procedure.

Under x-ray guidance, a catheter is inserted into the kidney through the incision. The stone is then seen, broken up, and removed from the body using a small telescope that is inserted via the tube.

 

The stone may need to be broken up first using a laser or another tool called a lithotripter, if necessary, in order to be removed. When compared to open stone surgery, this procedure has produced noticeably less post-operative pain, a shorter hospital stay, and an earlier return to work and daily activities.

 

When your kidneys are no longer functioning properly to remove wastes, salts, and liquids from your blood, haemodialysis is used.

 

One treatment for advanced kidney failure is haemodialysis, which can let you maintain an active lifestyle despite your failing kidneys.

 

When receiving haemodialysis, you must:

  • Adhere to a tight treatment schedule
  • regular medicine intake
  • Make dietary adjustments
  •  

Although receiving haemodialysis is a major burden, you don’t have to carry it by yourself.

You’ll collaborate closely with your medical staff, which consists of a kidney expert and other specialists with haemodialysis management experience.

 

Haemodialysis can support your body in maintaining a healthy fluid and mineral balance, including potassium and salt, as well as blood pressure control. Haemodialysis typically starts long before your kidneys have completely shut down and complications have developed that could be fatal.

When your kidneys are no longer able to adequately complete the job, peritoneal dialysis is a treatment option.

Compared to haemodialysis, which is a more popular blood-filtering method, this process filters the blood in a different way. A cleaning solution is injected into a portion of your abdomen via a catheter during peritoneal dialysis. Your peritoneum, which lines your belly, functions as a filter to take waste materials out of your blood.

The fluid containing the filtered waste items flows out of your abdomen and is expelled after a predetermined amount of time.  You can receive these treatments while travelling, at work, or at home. However, not all patients with renal failure can undergo peritoneal dialysis.

Glomerulonephritis is an inflammation of the small kidney filters (glomeruli).

Urine is the body’s natural way of excreting waste and extra fluid that glomeruli remove from the bloodstream. Glomerulonephritis can develop gradually or quickly (acutely) (chronic). Glomerulonephritis can be an independent condition or a complication of another illness, such lupus or diabetes.

The kidneys can get damaged by glomerulonephritis-related inflammation that is severe or persistent.  The type of glomerulonephritis determines the course of treatment.

Signs and symptoms of glomerulonephritis might include:

  • urine that is cola or pink in colour due to the presence of red blood cells (haematuria)
  • urine that is foamy or frothy because it contains too much protein (proteinuria)
  • elevated blood pressure (hypertension)
  • Your face, hands, feet, abdomen, and any other swollen areas are the result of fluid retention (oedema).
  • fewer urinations than normal
  • nausea and diarrhoea
  • muscle pain

Fatigue


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As one of the best kidney transplant hospitals, RPS hospital offers a variety of treatments for chronic kidney disease. Our expert kidney specialist in Chennai provides high-quality standardized care to all patients. Find out more about kidney disease symptoms, tests, and diagnosis at RPS Hospital.